Uno de los objetivos de la SENC es la divulgación de imágenes científicas de miembros de la SENC que hayan sido objeto de publicación en Portadas de Revistas Científicas. Cualquier miembro de la SENC puede enviar las imágenes y/o composiciones publicadas como portadas en revistas científicas para su difusión en la página web de la SENC. Las portadas de revistas científicas se enviarán a la dirección electrónica: email@example.com en formato TIFF, jpg, o pdf, junto con: a) el nombre del socio que la presenta (tiene que ser autor del trabajo); b) la cita completa del trabajo publicado; y, c) un texto en inglés (máximo 5 líneas) explicativo de la imagen o composición.
Galería (selección) de portadas en revistas científicas:
Agís-Balboa RC, Pinheiro PS, Rebola N, Kerimoglu C, Benito E, Gertig M, Bahari-Javan S, Jain G, Burkhardt S, Delalle I, Jatzko A, Dettenhofer M, Zunszain PA, Schmitt A, Falkai P, Pape JC, Binder EB, Mulle C, Fischer A, Sananbenesi F. Formin 2 links neuropsychiatric phenotypes at young age to an increased risk for dementia. EMBO J. 2017 Oct 2;36(19):2815-2828.
Deregulation of the actin cytoskeleton regulator Formin 2 is a common denominator of post-traumatic stress disorders and age-dependent Alzheimer’s disease phenotypes, possibly explaining their clinical connection. Agis-Balboa et al. provide molecular insight to the phenomena that people suffering from PTSD at young age have an increased risk to develop Alzheimer’s disease. The data suggest that the Formin 2 protein and aberrant gene-expression play a key role.
Gonzalez-Fernandez C, Arevalo-Martin A, Paniagua-Torija B, Ferrer I, Rodriguez FJ, Garcia-Ovejero D. Wnts Are Expressed in the Ependymal Region of the Adult Spinal Cord. Mol Neurobiol 2016 Oct 8. doi: 10.1007/s12035-016-0132-8.
In rodent spinal cord, neural precursors/stem cells are arranged around the central canal, like the seeds around the central placenta (white core) of the kiwi fruit. But in adult humans central canal is collapsed, and ependymal cells rearrange forming cell aggregations like those formed by seeds in the pomegranate. In the current paper, we show that Wnts are expressed both in rats and human ependymal region, but with a different pattern, suggesting a role for this family of proteins in both species, but probably different functional implications in each of them. Kiwi fruit and pomegranate pictures are under Creative Commons CC0 License and have been obtained from the free repository Pixabay.
Parra-Damas A., Chen M., Enríquez-Barreto L., Ortega L., Acosta S., Camats Perna J., Fullana N., Aguilera J., Rodríguez-Alvarez J., and Saura C.A. CRTC1 function during memory encoding is disrupted in neurodegeneration. Biol Psychiatry 2017; 81 (2): 111-23.
Landscape of pyramidal neurons showing localization of the transcriptional coactivator CRTC1 (green) in the nucleus (blue) and surrounding MAP2-positive dendrites (red) in the adult mouse hippocampus after memory training. Nuclear translocation and function of CRTC1 is disrupted in a mouse model displaying associative memory deficits and Alzheimer´s disease like-pathological features.
M. Valero, RG. Averkin, I. Fernandez-Lamo, J. Aguilar, D. Lopez-Pigozzi, JR. Brotons-Mas, E. Cid, G. Tamas, and L. Menendez de la Prida. Mechanisms for selective single-cell reactivation during offline sharp-wave ripples and their distortion by fast ripples. Neuron 2017; 94 (6): 1234-47.
The study explores the synaptic mechanisms of firing selectivity by CA1 pyramidal cells during sharp-wave ripples. Using unsupervised clustering of ripple waveforms, the authors show how an intracellular synaptic depolarization determines firing preference during some sharp-wave ripple events. This mechanism is impaired in epileptic rats and cells fire indiscriminately following global synaptic influences. The image depicts the waves beating the seashore and two spiky shadows at the edge choosing a ripple to jump. Image from Adam Goldberg, used under license from Shutterstock.com.
Barcia, C., Guillemin, G.J., Curtin, J.F. y Zirger, J.M. Front Cell Neurosci 2016; 10: 60. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2016.00060. eCollection 2016. Editorial: Glial Cells: Managers of Neuro-Immunity.
Three-dimensional rendering of a confocal imaging performed in a biopsy of human glioblastoma. Microglia/macrophages, marked with Iba-1 (green) are populating the tumor tissue, evidenced by elongated Vimentin positive glioma cells (pink). Confocal image scanned with confocal microscope (ZEISS LSM 700) and 3D reconstruction performed with specialized software (Imaris, Bitplane).
Gradari, S., Pérez-Domper, P., Butler, R.G., Martínez-Cué, C., de Polavieja, G.G. and Trejo, J.L. The relationship between behavior acquisition and persistence abilities: Involvement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Hippocampus 2016; 26 (7): 857-74. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22568. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22568.
Doublecortin (DCX)-Calretinin (CLR) immunolabeling of the hippocampal dentate gyrus of a 4 month old male mice (Mus musculus). DCX+ (red) and CLR+ (green) neurons in a section from a control (no treatment) mouse, where both DCX+/CLR+ and DCX+/CLR+ can be appreciated. This dual labeling lets to count two different subpopulation of immature, differentiating neurons in two successive stages of maturation with one double immunohistochemistry reaction. Cell counts were performed in these type of sections by using the U-disector and confocal microscopy. The cover image, by J.L. Trejo et al., is based on the Research Article The relationship between behavior acquisition and persistence abilities: Involvement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.
Barcia, C. y Barba, N. Nature Reviews Neurology 2014; 10 (2).
Glial network in the human cortex. Astrocytes with their long processes (yellow) are immunostained with GFAP antibodies, and microglia with their shorter processes are visualized with IBA1 antibodies (blue). Glial cells form an extensive and uniform network along the brain parenchyma that is crucial for the correct functioning of the CNS. Research on glial cells provides important insights into the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders.
Parra-Damas A., Valero J., Chen M., España J., Martin E., Ferrer I., Rodríguez-Alvarez J. and Saura C.A. CRTC1 activates a transcriptional program deregulated at early Alzheimer´s disease- related pathological stages. J Neurosci 2014; 34 (17): 5776-87.
Confocal immunofluorescence image showing localization of the transcriptional coactivator CRTC1 in neurons of the adult mouse hippocampus after adeno-associated viral-CRTC1 gene therapy. CRTC1 (green) localizes in neurites and nuclei of CA3 hippocampal and dentate gyrus neurons (red, NeuN). Authors: Núria Barba, Arnaldo Parra-Damas and Carlos A. Saura.
Leal-Campanario, R., Delgado-García, J.M., Gruart, A. Electrical stimulation of the rostral medial prefrontal cortex inhibits reflex blinks and the expression of conditioned eyelid responses, but does not affect its acquisition, in behaving rabbits. Journal of Neuroscience 2013; 33 (10): 4378-86. ISSN: 0270-6474.
The rostromedial prefrontal cortex in rabbits is a potent inhibitor of acquired eyelid responses until the need for the acquired response is fully confirmed. In this regard, the rostromedial prefrontal cortex seems to act as flip-flop mechanism controlling the expression of reflex and acquired behaviors depending on the animal environmental circumstances. Photography by R. Leal-Campanario, J.A. Santos and J.C. López-Ramos; editing by R. Leal-Campanario.
Rodríguez-Moreno, A., González-Rueda, A., Banerjee, A., Upton, A.L., Craig, M.T. and Paulsen, O. Presynaptic self-depression at developing neocortical synapses. Neuron 2013 Jan 9; 77 (1): 35-42. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.10.035.
Activity-dependent plasticity is important for synaptic refinement during cortical development. The cover shows that a specific spike pattern in individual presynaptic layer 4 neurons (blue traces) can induce long-term depression (LTD) without the involvement of the postsynaptic neuron. This presynaptic spike pattern-dependent LTD (p-LTD) requires release of glutamate (green spheres) activating presynaptic NMDA receptors (red rods).
Encinas, J.M., Michurina, T.V., Peunova, N., Park, J.H., Tordo, J., Peterson, D.A., Fishell, G., Koulakov, A. and Enikolopov, G. Division-coupled astrocytic differentiation and age-related depletion of neural stem cells in the adult hippocampus. Cell Stem Cell 2011; 6; 8 (5): 566-79. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2011.03.010.
Production of new neurons in the adult brain goes down with age and this decline may underlie age-related cognitive impairment. Encinas et al. (pages 566–579) show that aging is associated with the decrease in the number of neural stem cell in the hippocampus. These cells disappear, after a rapid series of divisions, via their conversion into astrocytes. The image depicts stem cells (teal) and neuronal nuclei (yellow), with the autumn trees with falling leaves symbolizing the loss of cells during aging. Image created by Elena Nikanorova, Ann-Shyn Chiang, and Grigori Enikolopov.
Elena Porras-García*, Raudel Sánchez-Campusano, David Martínez-Vargas, Eduardo Domínguez-del-Toro, Jan Cendelín, Frantisek Vožeh, José M. Delgado-García. Behavioral Characteristics, Associative Learning Capabilities, and Dynamic Association Mapping in an Animal Model of Cerebellar Degeneration. Journal of Neurophysiology 2010; 104: 346-65; doi:10.1152/jn.00180.2010.
Representation of the three main regularities in the instantaneous firing (IF) activities of red nucleus (RN) and cerebellar interpositus (IP) neurons observed during classical eyeblink conditioning. The message is that the learning trace in these structures is dissipated because the level of the dynamic associations (η max., middle spiral) decreases across training (from C1 to C10).
Llorente, R., Llorente-Berzal, A., Petrosino, S., Marco, E.M., Guaza, C., Prada, C., López-Gallardo, M., Di Marzo, V. and Viveros, M.P. (2008) Gender dependent cellular and biochemical effects of maternal deprivation on the hippocampus of neonatal rats; a possible role for the endocannabinoid system. Dev Neurobiol 2008; 68 (11): 1334-47. ISSN 1932-8451.
Microphotograph showing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive cells (green) with cellular nucleus staining with DNA-binding fluorescent dye 4’, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI, blue) from the stratum radiatum and lacunosum-moleculare of hippocampal CA1 area of a rat.